Dueler's Dilemma: A One-Person Computer Gaming Platform for Decison-Making


  1. Tikuisis, P.
  2. Keefe, A.A.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Toronto, Toronto ONT (CAN)
‘Dueler’s Dilemma’ is one-person computer-based interactive game whereby the player, hereafter referred to as the subject, engages an unseen opponent in a non zero-sum silent shooting duel. Shots fired on a time scale from 0 to 1 by either the subject or opponent have a linearly increasing chance of hitting their target from 0 to 100%, respectively. However, the probability that either target is hit depends on the combination of shooting times that the subject and opponent chooses (e.g., if the opponent shoots first, the subject’s only chance of hitting the opponent depends on being missed by the opponent’s shot). The shooting times chosen by the opponent are unpredictable and concealed from the subject. Further, the probability of being hit changes with each engagement, even if the subject chooses to shoot at the same time as in a previous engagement. However, patterns will emerge with a sufficient number of engagements and the subject’s objective is to converge to an optimal shooting time. After each engagement, the subject is presented with a display of the outcome, either in discrete or distributional format. Dueler’s Dilemma is presented as a versatile gamming platform suitable for researching life-critical decision making under time pressure. Its simplistic rule structure complemented by the considerable latitude in shaping the opponent’s shooting strategy makes it an attractive investigative tool, as demonstrated through various scenarios.

Il y a un résumé en français ici.

Game theory;Kill strategy;Dueler’s Dilemma;Behavioural response research;Silent duel
Report Number
DRDC-TORONTO-TM-2007-091 — Technical Memorandum
Date of publication
01 Nov 2007
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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