The Comparison of Three Field Rewarming Systems Using a Thermal Water Manikin


  1. Ducharme, M.B.
  2. Edwards, G.
Corporate Authors
Defence and Civil Inst of Environmental Medicine, Downsview ONT (CAN)
Search and Rescue (SAR) is in need of a portable and efficient method of rewarming hypothermia victims in the field to replace their current method, which has limited efficiency and flexibility. To fill this need, DCIEM is in the process of developing a portable forced air rewarming system. A concept prototype was developed and based on its success a portable version was constructed. This report describes a study that was undertaken with the objective of comparing the effectiveness of these two forced air systems (FAW) when compared with a circulated hot water blanket (HWB) developed by Delta Temax Inc. (Pembroke, Ont). To accomplish this comparison a thermal water manikin was developed and the tests were conducted in 3 different environmental conditions (20C, 0C and -20C). The comparisons were based on the amount of time it took to rewarm the thermal calorimetry manikin's mean internal water temperature from 25C (simulating a human core temperature during severe hypothermia) to 37C. The comparison showed that the FAW prototypes were, on average for the three environmental conditions, twice as effective (rate of heat gain of 333.0 + or - 83.7 W) as the HWB therapy (165.3 + or - 14.8 W). Between the FAW systems, the concept system was on average 13% more effective (355.5 + or - 83.7 W) than the portable system (310.5 + or - 78.7 W). TRUNCATED
Thermal instrumented manikins;Thermal manikin;Thermal physiology;Cold water;Immersion;Manikin
Report Number
DCIEM-TR-1999-047 — Technical Report
Date of publication
01 May 1999
Number of Pages
Hardcopy;Document Image stored on Optical Disk

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