A Review of the Preparation, Characterization and Surface Active Nature of Inorganic and Organic Xerogels and Aerogels


  1. Morton, L.A.
Corporate Authors
Defence Research Establishment Suffield, Ralston ALTA (CAN);Royal Military Coll of Canada, Kingston ONT (CAN) Dept of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
For over fifty years, coal-based activated porous carbons have been used as the absorbent material and catalyst support in military gas masks used by the Canadian Forces and many other armed forces around the world. Impregnation of the carbon by inorganic catalysts and more recently with amines provides protection of the gas mask user agains a variety of toxic gases and vapours deemed to be likely chemical agents. The need for such protective devices had not disappeared with the end of the so-called cold war. On the contrary, the increasing threat of terrorist attacks using toxic agents has increased the need for military and other personnel to be able to protect themselves against a wider range of substances than before. There is a need to respond to this increased threat by developing masks that afford protection against a range of toxic industrial materials as well as military agents. At the same time, the possibility of reducing the size and modifying the geometry of the traditional canister, to increase the comfort level and thereby the operational efficiency of the user, are desirable goals for the next generation of gas masks. Incremental improvements in the performance of impregnated particulate carbons have been made over the years, and further improvements could well be made in the future as techniques are developed to modify the pore structure of the carbon in a more controlled manner. TRUNCATED
Sol-gels;Sol-gel processing;Hydrosols;Aerogels;Hydrogels;Xerogels;Polymeric silica;Precursors;Silyation;Ceramers;Catalytic detoxification
Report Number
DRES-CR-1999-144 — Contractor Report
Date of publication
01 Mar 1999
Number of Pages
Hardcopy;Document Image stored on Optical Disk

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