Prediction of Times of Facial and Finger Freezing During Cold Air Exposure


  1. Tikuisis, P.
  2. Keefe, A.A.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Toronto, Toronto ONT (CAN)
The Cold Exposure Survival Model (CESM) has undergone various modifications since its inception as a decision aid for Search and Rescue. The present change is the addition of the prediction of the risk of frostbite of the cheek and finger. This risk is not confined to just the casualty, but it might also apply to the rescuers. Hence, predictions on the risk of frostbite and its rate of onset would markedly augment CESM by providing a more complete assessment of the casualty’s survival status, and the risk to the rescuers, especially when bare hands are unavoidable. These predictions should also help increase public awareness on the risk of frostbite and potentially alleviate the incidence and severity of cold injury. This report outlines a methodology for calculating the risk and onset times of frostbite of the bare cheeks and fingers. Times to freezing are considerably more informative and less likely to be misinterpreted than the conventional use of the wind chill temperature, which can be misleading.

Il y a un résumé en français ici.

Heat loss;Heat transfer;Wind chill;Face(anatomy);Exposure;Wind velocity;Convection;Body temperature;Temperature;Skin (anatomy);Models;Cold injuries;Frostbite;Cold stress
Report Number
DRDC-TORONTO-TR-2004-140 — Technical Report
Date of publication
01 Aug 2004
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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