Alternative Display Modalities in Support of Wayfinding


  1. Kumagai, J.K.
  2. Tack, D.W.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Toronto, Toronto ONT (CAN);Humansystems Inc, Guelph ONT (CAN)
The aims of this study were: to determine the information requirements for effective wayfinding in wooded terrain, during both day and night conditions; to determine the utility of each of three different display modalities: visual, auditory, and tactile for enhancing wayfinding capabilities; and to identify the interface design issues associated with each modality to determine the requirements for design optimization and future experimentation. Twenty regular force infantry soldiers were required to navigate 1 km routes with multiple waypoints through wooded terrain using in-service methods (compass) and three different modalities: visual, auditory, and tactile displays. All wayfinding conditions were performed during both day and night. A simulated obstacle was incorporated into one leg of each route to assess the adaptability of each modality. To simulate the tactical demands of operational wayfinding (i.e. wayfinding behind enemy lines), soldiers were required to detect and engage 2D infantry waffle targets simulating enemy soldiers enroute. Soldiers used the Future Infantry Navigation Device (FIND) to conduct the wayfinding tasks. The FIND system related the soldier’s own location (using a Global Positioning System or GPS) and facing direction (using an electronic compass mounted on the helmet) to the next waypoint and produced the offset bearing for display in each modality. A “display activation” remote control button was strapped to the soldier’s weapon to ena

Il y a un résumé en français ici.

wayfinding;display modalities;visual display;auditory display;tactile;tactor;Future Infantry Navigation Device (FIND);Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration Project;SIREQ TD;navigation
Report Number
DRDC-TORONTO-CR-2005-093 — Contractor Report
Date of publication
01 Jul 2005
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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