Alternative Directional Modalities in Support of Wayfinding


  1. Kumagai, J.K.
  2. Tack, D.W.
  3. Colbert, H.J.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Toronto, Toronto ONT (CAN);Humansystems Inc, Guelph ONT (CAN)
The aims of this study were: to determine the information requirements for effective wayfinding in wooded terrain during both day and night conditions; to determine the utility of each of three different display modalities (visual, auditory, and tactual) for enhancing wayfinding capabilities; to assess the effectiveness of wayfinding systems that provide both location and directional information (2D) as compared to systems that provide only location information (1D); to determine the benefits and/or drawbacks of providing ‘distance from the waypoint’ information; to identify the interface design issues associated with each modality; and to determine the requirements for design optimization and future experimentation. Twelve infantry soldiers were required to navigate routes using the FIND (Future Infantry Navigation Device) system for enhanced wayfinding information in three different display modalities: visual, auditory, and tactile displays. For each modality, two systems were tested. The first was a one-dimensional system (1D) that provided information on the location of the waypoint, and how far the soldier had to turn in order to face the waypoint. The second was a two-dimensional system (2D) that provided the same information as the 1D system as well as directional information indicating the quickest way to turn in order to face the waypoint. The current in-service condition of using a compass and pace counting was piloted at night on a shortened route. To simulate

Il y a un résumé en français ici.

wayfinding;display modalities;visual display;auditory display;tactual;tactile;tactor;Future Infantry Navigation Device (FIND);Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration Project;SIREQ TD;navigation
Report Number
DRDC-TORONTO-CR-2005-068 — Contractor Report
Date of publication
01 Jul 2005
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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