Apparent Reliability: Conditions for Reliance on Supervised Automation

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Authors
  1. Kessel, R.T.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Atlantic, Dartmouth NS (CAN)
Abstract
When experts are given automation for assistance, they naturally observe its actions and judge its reliability for themselves. The automation is supervised, for a time at least, when it must win the trust of its users before it can serve effectively through routine use. Lack of trust, on the other hand, results in under utilization or total disuse of the automation. This occurs so often in practice that researchers investigating trust in automation now speak of a prevailing “bias toward self reliance” among users. Here a quantitative analysis of apparent reliability is applied to supervised automation. It is shown that subjective reliability assessment imposes minimum standards of proficiency on the user of the automation. It takes a high-performance user, that is, to recognize the high-performance of automation in action. This is demonstrated here using the applied mathematics of operation analysis. Minimum performance standards for both user and automation are derived that must be met before it is plausible that the automation may appear reliable to its user. The standards are surprisingly stringent for critical applications, creating a natural barrier–or bias–against reliance that is unavoidable with supervised automation. These are conditions of feasibility that must be met to avoid failure in disuse for supervised automation. Special attention is given to automation within a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) concept of operations, and for command and control (C2)

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Keywords
TRUST IN AUTOMATION;HUMAN-MACHINE NTERACTION;DECISION AIDS;SUPERVISED AUTOMATION;TDP;ATR (Automatic Target Recognition);Remote Minehunting System (RMS)
Report Number
DRDC-ATLANTIC-TM-2005-155 — Technical Memorandum
Date of publication
01 Jul 2005
Number of Pages
46
DSTKIM No
CA027012
CANDIS No
525009
Format(s):
CD ROM

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