Non-lethal weapon mix study – Non-lethal weapons in reactive crowd confrontation, nickel abeyance III


  1. Dobias, P.
  2. Sprague, K.
  3. Bassindale, S.
  4. Sinclair, D.
  5. Demaine, J.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Centre for Operational Research and Analysis, Ottawa ON (CAN);Operational Research Div, Ottawa ONT (CAN) Land Force Operational Research Team
Director of Land Requirements 5 (DLR 5) has requested that a study be conducted to determine the optimal distribution of non-lethal weapons at the Section level for reactive crowd confrontation operations (CCO). This study, denoted as NICKEL ABEYANCE III, is a continuation of the NICKEL ABEYANCE series that looks at the employment of non-lethal weapons in the context of CCO. The study was based on two scenarios involving a rifle Section conducting operations during daylight conditions within a semi-complex terrain, equipped with blunt trauma non-lethal weapons. For the study, various mixes of 40 mm launcher with sponge rounds and 12-gauge shotgun with drag stabilized rounds were considered. Close Action Environment (CAEn) was used as the war-gaming tool for gathering the necessary information. To disperse a benign crowd the option with the most non-lethal launchers was the most effective for the considered scenario, and under the assumptions made for the crowd behaviour. To disperse a hostile crowd serving as a cover for one or more armed constituents (suicide bombers and/or rocket-propelled grenade operators) a prolonged use of non-lethal weapons put BLUE and innocent civilians at a greater risk by providing the insurgents with extended time to carry on with their plan. Therefore it was concluded that speed of identification of the threat was the most critical consideration. In the modeled scenario and with the options considered the most efficient means was the escalation o

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Report Number
DRDC-CORA-TM-2008-046 — Technical Memorandum
Date of publication
01 Nov 2008
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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