Effects of personnel tempo on military members, their families, and the organization – An annotated bibliography


  1. Sudom, K.
  2. Eyvindson, J.A.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Centre for Operational Research and Analysis, Ottawa ON (CAN);Director General Military Personnel Research & Analysis, Ottawa ONT (CAN)
Personnel tempo (perstempo), the demands military service places on its members, can have impacts at the individual, family, and organizational levels. This annotated bibliography provides an overview of the review papers and research studies conducted both in the CF and other military research organizations on the effects of personnel tempo (including optempo or the pace of military operations, time away, and workload) on important individual, family, and organizational outcomes, and variables that may buffer or exacerbate these outcomes. The research suggests that frequent and longer deployments, as well as those of a more hostile nature, tend to be associated with more adverse outcomes. The types of stressors experienced by military members vary throughout the deployment cycle, and some reports have indicated that experiences vary depending on factors such as type of unit and reserve versus regular force status. Despite the evidence for the negative impacts of high perstempo, it appears that if time away is not excessive, deployments can have a positive effect on retention, in that they allow personnel to put their skills and training to use. In addition, researchers have identified a number of factors that may buffer individuals against the negative impacts of stressors associated with military service, such as adaptive coping styles. Although length and frequency of deployments can play a critical role in determining whether adverse outcomes will become evident, other fa

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Report Number
DRDC-CORA-TM-2008-049 — Technical Memorandum
Date of publication
01 Nov 2008
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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