Measurement and Modelling of Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation Over Water


  1. Tollefsen, C.
  2. Murowinski, E.C.
  3. Pecknold, S.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Atlantic, Dartmouth NS (CAN)
General interest in understanding atmospheric acoustic propagation over water has increased in recent years, driven primarily by concerns about noise from offshore wind farms. In addition, there are specific naval interests such as evaluating the performance of directional acoustic hailing devices used at sea, determining the potential environmental impact of naval gunfire exercises, and understanding the in-air acoustic footprint of maritime-based military assets. Atmospheric acoustic propagation is strongly affected by the environment, including sea surface roughness and atmospheric parameter profiles (temperature, wind velocity, humidity, and turbulence). However, published measurements and realistic modelling of the effect of environmental parameters on over-water acoustic propagation are sparse. An experiment was designed to measure atmospheric acoustic transmission loss over water by using an acoustic source on a small boat and a receiver on a barge. Point measurements of atmospheric parameters and directional ocean wave spectra were made in the vicinity the experiment. Also, separate data from two types of atmospheric parameter profiles - measured radiosonde profiles and modelled profiles generated by Environment Canada’s Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model - were made available for this investigation. The dependence of measured transmission loss on source-to-receiver range, atmospheric parameter profiles, receiver height, and wind speed was explored, and imp

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Report Number
DRDC-ATLANTIC-TM-2010-184 — Technical Memorandum
Date of publication
01 Dec 2010
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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