Exploring new dimensions in the assessment of virtual reality induced side effects


  1. Bouchard, S.
  2. Robillard, G.
  3. Renaud, P.
  4. Bernier, F.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Valcartier, Valcartier QUE (CAN)
Two issues are increasingly of interests in the scientific literature regarding virtual reality induced unwanted side effects: (a) the latent structure of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ), and (b) the overlap between anxiety symptoms and unwanted side effects. Study 1 was conducted with a sample of 517 participants. A confirmatory factor analysis clearly supported a two-factor model composed of nausea and oculomotor symptoms. To tease-out symptoms of anxiety from negative side effects of immersion, Study 2 was conducted with 47 participants who were stressed without being immersed in virtual reality. Five of the 16 side effects correlated significantly with anxiety. In a third study conducted with 72 participants, the post-immersion scores of the SSQ and the State Anxiety scale were subjected to a factor analysis to detect items side effects that would load on the anxiety factor. The results converged with those of Study 2 and revealed that general discomfort and difficulty concentrating loaded significantly on the anxiety factor. The overall results support the notion that side effects consists mostly of a nausea and an oculomotor latent structure and that (only) a few items may reflect anxiety more than unwanted negative side effects.
Report Number
DRDC-VALCARTIER-SL-2012-085 — Scientific Literature
Date of publication
01 Feb 2012
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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