A Preliminary Non-lethal Weapons Gap Analysis – Wargame NICKEL X


  1. Sprague, K.
  2. Bassindale, S.H.
  3. Sinclair, D.
  4. King, J.
  5. Eissa, A.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Centre for Operational Research and Analysis, Ottawa ON (CAN)
Through DRDC CORA’s involvement with the NATO SAS-078 panel entitled Non-Lethal Weapons Capabilities-Based Assessment, a wargame study was requested to evaluate, from a Canadian Forces (CF) perspective, capability gaps and the relative performance of potential non-lethal weapon (NLW) solutions in several vignettes of interest. A variety of NLW sets were compared in four vignettes. Ranges, terrain, opposing (OP) forces, own forces and objectives varied with the vignettes. Ever-present were the two main NLW sets compared: a ‘Baseline’ option representing current Canadian Forces capabilities, containing 40-mm sponge rounds launched from an under-barrel M203 together with so-called ‘Visual Warning Technology’ devices (VWT—a form of eye-safe laser dazzler), and a ‘Stun Gun’ option containing stun gun projectiles fired from a specialized 12-gauge shotgun. One additional vignette-specific option was gamed with non-lethal capabilities over and above that of the others. Additions included the Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD), the Active Denial System (ADS), and a simple aggregation of sponge round and stun gun capabilities into one option. Overall, the efficacy of the Baseline option was below that of options employing stun guns only. This result was consistent across all vignettes, and holds true even though, in many cases, the number of stun guns was reduced by half compared to the number of sponge round launchers, owing to the fact that adequate and ready lethal fo

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Report Number
DRDC-CORA-TM-2012-279 — Technical Memorandum
Date of publication
01 Dec 2012
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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