Classification of Less Lethal Device Technologies


  1. Baines, D.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Valcartier, Valcartier QUE (CAN);Biokinetics and Associates Ltd, Ottawa ONT (CAN)
Biokinetics was tasked by DRDC Valcartier as part of the CEWSI (Conductive Energy Weapon Strategic Initiative) to define a classification schema based on available information that can be used as part of an approval process to ensure that technologies to be approved are assessed using proper regulations and test protocols. This was achieved by conducting a review of source material that came from previous DRDC contracts, NATO and TTCP panel reports, as well as the internet. Results indicate that despite much research and discussion about device effectiveness, evaluation methodologies, and studies of human effects; there are not any product standards for less-lethal devices. If occupational exposure standards exist for the particular agent being used, as they do for many types of noise, radiation and chemicals, then these standards should be followed when possible. However, such standards are highly conservative with large safety factors and therefore might not induce the desired response. In general, injury thresholds seem to be known for many of the major body regions and their related organs and systems. Combining this knowledge with device effectiveness and risk assessment methodology to create product performance and safety standards for less-lethal devices seems stalled in the research stage.

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Report Number
DRDC-VALCARTIER-CR-2012-127 — Contractor Report
Date of publication
01 Mar 2012
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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