Survey of Active Acoustic Monitoring (AAM) Technologies – Volume III: Active Sonar Performance Factors


  1. Maranda, B.H.
  2. Gilroy, L.E.
  3. Theriault, J.A.
  4. MacNeil, E.A.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Atlantic, Dartmouth NS (CAN)
Under the Exploration and Production (E&P) Sound and Marine Life Programme, a research study was carried out on the feasibility of the Active Acoustic Monitoring (AAM) of marine mammals. The purpose of such monitoring would be to detect marine mammals in those ocean areas where E&P activities are being conducted, in order to allow due diligence in mitigating any potential impact of these E&P operations. The study did not include any direct experimentation. First, the problem domain was delineated in an overview of offshore E&P activities and of the ocean environments in which they are conducted. To make the analysis more concrete, six specific ocean areas of relevance to E&P were selected and their properties described. Next, the potential performance of AAM was investigated via a parametric study of the sonar equation, incorporating available knowledge of sonar technology and environmental effects. Special effort was dedicated to investigating the target strength of marine mammals, as this is an area in which scientific knowledge is sparse at present. The parametric analysis included several generic examples, and was also applied to the six specific ocean areas. Finally, a survey was conducted of commercially available sonar equipment by collecting data from sonar vendors through an online form. The sonars were then ranked as to their suitability for AAM based on the factors identified as important during the earlier study of potential AAM performance. This report (Volume II

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Report Number
DRDC-ATLANTIC-ECR-2010-044 — External Client Report
Date of publication
01 Nov 2010
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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