Audibility of Naval Gunfire Exercises on Land – Literature Review


  1. Hood, J.
  2. Demko, A.
  3. Staicer, C.
  4. Webster, P.
  5. Bougher, B.
Corporate Authors
Defence R&D Canada - Atlantic, Dartmouth NS (CAN);Akoostix Inc, Dartmouth NS (CAN)
There are gaps in knowledge related to the impact of naval gunfire on bird colonies located on the coastline and islands near the MARLANT operational areas. Generally, assessing the impact of sound on animals requires knowledge of the sound’s source level, sound propagation to the animal, ambient noise level at the animal, and the hearing sensitivity and tolerance of the animal. A literature review was conducted to summarize existing knowledge on in-air ambient noise levels and spectra as a function of surf, weather, and geographical conditions; Canadian naval gun source levels, directivity, and spectra; and the frequency ranges and sensitivity of bird hearing. Limited information was found, but knowledge was improved in all required areas. The primary result was establishing that, for the most part, the spectra of naval gunfire and the sensitivity of avian hearing have little overlap in frequency. Thus, birds are not likely to hear or be disturbed by sounds from gunfire that are received at moderate to low levels. Regardless, the impact of disturbing naval gunfire on bird colonies could be high, especially during the breeding season when eggs and young are vulnerable. In order to complete a thorough and more definitive analysis of the subject more work is required to: better characterize ambient noise levels near sensitive areas, predict sound propagation effects, better quantify naval gun source levels, and define the sound levels required to disturb birds in the MARLANT

Il y a un résumé en français ici.

avian hearing;naval gunfire;source level;ambient noise;acoustic;bird
Report Number
DRDC-ATLANTIC-CR-2011-126;AI-CR2011-011 — Contract Report
Date of publication
01 Feb 2012
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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