Bedford Basin sound speed profiles – Statistical analysis and low-order approximations


  1. Blouin, S.
Corporate Authors
Defence Research and Development Canada, Atlantic Research Centre, Halifax NS (CAN)
The Bedford Basin and its affluents have played a key military role as both a British and an Allied Nations stronghold before becoming commercially pivotal for the Halifax Regional Municipality. This document presents a statistical analysis of Bedford Basin’s data collected by the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (Department of Fisheries and Oceans) over the course of the last 20 years. Based on this unique data set, the present report provides for the first time a long-term statistical analysis of the variations of the sound speed profile in Bedford Basin. This investigation revealed a stratification of the salinity profile as well as a strong correlation between temperature and sound speed values. A monthly breakdown of the data is proposed. This particular data grouping led to a classification of four distinct sound speed profile patterns: isovelocity, downward-refracting, upward-refracting, and shadow zone. Moreover, this report identifies parametric low-order approximations of the sound speed profile based on robust statistics, a necessary approach as the underwater speed of sound is not normally distributed. Robust regressions were used to derive approximations of the monthly sound speed data and the regression models are depth-dependent polynomials. Overall, the resulting approximations are made of relatively low-order polynomials. The above results remain valid for various sound speed formulas as the outcome of the selected formula was shown to not differ too much

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underwater;sound speed;profile;variability;low-order approximation
Report Number
DRDC-RDDC-2015-R249 — Scientific Report
Date of publication
01 Nov 2015
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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