Weld-end solidification cracking in pulsed-tandem gas-metal-arc welding of naval steels


  1. Sterjovski, Z.
  2. Bayley, C.
  3. Donato, J.
  4. Lane, N.
  5. Lang, D.
Corporate Authors
Defence Research and Development Canada, Atlantic Research Centre, Halifax NS (CAN)
Pulsed tandem gas metal arc welding (PT-GMAW) has the potential to increase productivity and minimize distortion in the fabrication of naval surface ship panels. In this study, the PT-GMAW process was used in pulse-pulse mode to butt-weld 5 mm DH36, 8 mm HSLA65, 9.5 mm 350WT and 11 mm HSLA65 steel plate with ER70S-6 wire in order to assess its suitability as a replacement for submerged arc welding (SAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) in panel lines of Australian naval shipyards. In the pulse-pulse mode, the wire feed rates for the leading and trailing welding wires are set independently and they alternately transfer metal into a single molten weld pool at deposition rates almost comparable with single-wire SAW. Radiographic inspection and subsequent analyses of the 8 mm, 9.5 mm and 11 mm single-bead butt-welds unexpectedly showed varying degrees of weld-end solidification cracking, which occurred within ~30 mm from the run-off tab and was different to weld-crater cracking. The percentage of plates with solidification cracking was greater at larger plate thicknesses due mainly to increases in both the weld bead depth - width ratio and joint restraint as plate thickness is increased. Also, relatively low levels of nickel in the weld metal resulted in less severe solidification cracks compared with weld metal with higher levels of nickel. There was no evidence of solidification cracks in the 5 mm welded plates. Potential strategies to overcome weld metal solidification crackin
welding;solification cracking;pulsed tandem gas metal arc welding;solidification cracking;naval hull steels;HSLA65 steel;DH36 steel;single-bead welds
Report Number
DRDC-RDDC-2016-N004 — External Literature
Date of publication
20 Sep 2016
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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