Assessment of the Next Generation of Colour Vision Tests for Pilots and Aircrew


  1. Hovis, J.K.
  2. Almustanyir, A.
Corporate Authors
Defence Research and Development Canada, Toronto Research Centre , Toronto ON (CAN);Waterloo University, Waterloo Ont (CAN) School of Optometry and Vision Science
The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) revised the colour testing protocol approximately 25 years ago; however, most of the colour vision tests used in the test battery were developed either prior to, or during WWII. With the emergence of affordable computer-based colour vision tests, the question arises as to whether the current suite of colour vision tests reflects best practices. Determining the clinical utility of these newer computer tests is the focus of this report. Methods. The tests evaluated were the Ishihara (38 plate edition), Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates Part 2 (SPP2), Farnsworth-Munsell D15 (D15), Holmes-Wright Lantern –Type A (HWA), Hardy, Rand, Rittler 4th edition (HRR), ColorDx Extended Adult Screening Series, ColorDx D15, Computer Assessment and Diagnosis (CAD), Rabin Cone Contrast (RCCT), Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCT), and Landolt C Cone Contrast (LandC). Results. With respect to detecting red-green colour vision defects, the majority of tests had very high level of agreement with the gold standard Rayleigh colour match. The two exceptions were the LandC and CAD colour vision screening tests. The false positive rates for these two tests ranged from 15% to 40%. The CCT misclassified a large percentage of protan colour-defectives as deutans, whereas the other threshold tests had excellent agreement with the anomaloscope as to the type of red-green defect. The agreement between most tests with respect to normal versus abnormal colour vision was very
colour vision;aircrew vision standards
Report Number
DRDC-RDDC-2017-C191 — Contract Report
Date of publication
01 Sep 2017
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

Permanent link

Document 1 of 1

Date modified: