The Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM) – Bottomside


  1. Themens, D.
  2. Jayachandran, P.T.
  3. McCaffrey, A.
  4. Reid, B.
Corporate Authors
Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa Ont (CAN) Corporate Office;New Brunswick Univ, Fredericton NB (CAN)
In this study, we present a bottomside model representation to be used by the Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM). This model features a new approach to modeling the bottomside electron density; namely, instead of modelling electron density directly, E-CHAIM models the altitude profile of the scale thickness of a single bottomside layer. In this approach the curvature in the bottomside associated with the E-region and F1-layer is represented in the scale thickness domain as a peak function centered at the layer peak altitude. The use of this approach ensures the production of explicitly doubly differentiable bottomside electron density profiles and directly avoids issues known to exist within current standard, such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), which has discontinuities in space, time, and in the vertical electron density gradient. In terms of performance, after removing the impacts of hmF2 and NmF2, the new ECHAIM profile function generally performs comparably to the IRI, with bottomside TEC within 1.6 TECU of observations. More specifically, the E-CHAIM bottomside is demonstrated to outperform the IRI bottomside function in the F-region during low solar activity periods. At high latitudes, E-CHAIM tends to outperform the IRI during winter months by between 10% and 40% of NmF2 while being outperformed by the IRI by between 10% and 25% of NmF2 during summer periods, particularly during the daytime at high solar activity.

Il y a un résumé en français ici.

Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model;International Reference Ionosphere;Ionosphere;Oblique ionospheric sounder;High-frequency Radar
Report Number
DRDC-RDDC-2018-C184 — Contract Report
Date of publication
01 Oct 2018
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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