The Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM) – Topside


  1. Themens, D.
  2. Jayachandran, P.T.
  3. McCaffrey, A.
  4. Reid, B.
Corporate Authors
Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa Ont (CAN) Corporate Office;New Brunswick Univ, Fredericton NB (CAN)
In this study, we present a topside model representation to be used by the Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM). In the process of this, we also present a comprehensive evaluation of the NeQuick’s, and by extension the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)’s, topside electron density model for mid and high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Using data gathered from all available Incoherent Scatter Radars, Topside Sounders, and GNSS Radio Occultation satellites, we show that the current NeQuick parameterization suboptimally represents the shape of the topside electron density profile at these latitudes and performs poorly in the representation of seasonal and solar cycle variations of the topside scale thickness. Despite this, the simple, one-variable, NeQuick model is a powerful tool for modeling the topside ionosphere. By refitting the parameters that define the maximum topside scale thickness and the rate of increase of the scale height within the NeQuick topside model function, rand g, respectively, as well as refitting the model’s parameterization of the scale height at the Fregion peak, Ho, we find considerable improvement in the NeQuick’s ability to represent the topside shape and behaviour. Building on these results we present a new topside model extension of the E-CHAIM based on the revised NeQuick function. Overall RMS errors in topside electron density are improved over the traditional IRI/NeQuick topside by 31% for a new NeQuick

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Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model;International Reference Ionosphere;Oblique ionospheric sounder;High-frequency Radar
Report Number
DRDC-RDDC-2018-C202 — Contract Report
Date of publication
01 Nov 2018
Number of Pages
Electronic Document(PDF)

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